The charity Mind and the NHS have both produced their own guidelines on the relationship between mood and food.
The American Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee’s 2015 report included a whole section on nutrition and mental health.
New evidence of the link between diet and mental health is appearing all the time.
Examples of studies into the link between gut bacteria and anxiety include:
Diaz Heijtz R, Wang S, Anuar F, Qian Y, Björkholm B, Samuelsson A, et al. Normal gut microbiota modulates brain development and behavior. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:3047–3052.
Neufeld KA, Kang N, Bienenstock J, Foster JA. Effects of intestinal microbiota on anxiety-like behavior. Commun Integr Biol. 2011;4:492–494.
Clarke G, Grenham S, Scully P, Fitzgerald P, Moloney RD, Shanahan F, et al. The microbiome-gut-brain axis during early life regulates the hippocampal serotonergic system in a sex-dependent manner. Mol Psychiatry. 2013;18:666–673.
Anti-depressants may cause some people to gain weight.
Caplan, PN. The pills that make us fat; Psychiatric drugs are adding to the obesity epidemic. New Scientist. 2008 Mar 5. 2646.
Rethink. Mood Stabilisers Factsheet. 2016.
Regular exercise may be at least as effective as antidepressants in some cases.
Goodwin, R.D. Association between physical activity and mental disorders among adults in the United States. Pre Med. 2003;36 (6):698−703.
Wei-Fen Ma, et al. Roles of State and Trait Anxiety in Physical Activity Participation for Adults with Anxiety Disorders. Journal of the Formosan Medical Association. 2009; 108 (6):481-492
Eat Mostly Plants
Plant-based diets can combat cancer and heart disease.
O Oyebode, V Gordon-Dseagu, Walker, J S Mindell. Fruit and vegetable consumption and all-cause, cancer and CVD mortality: analysis of Health Survey for England data. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2014 Mar:10.1136.
Only one-third of adults in the UK consume the recommended five portions of fruit and vegetables each day.
Vegetarian diets are associated with good mental health.
Beezhold BL, Johnston CS, Daigle DR. Vegetarian diets are associated with healthy mood states: a cross-sectional study in Seventh Day Adventist adults. Nutr J. 2010;9;26.
One theory about the mood-lifting benefits of plants suggests that anti-oxidants neutralise free radicals, which some have linked to depression.
Michel TM, Pulschen D, Thome J. The role of oxidative stress in depressive disorders. Curr Pharm Des. 2012;18 (36):5890-9.
Turmeric may help alleviate depression.
Al-Karawi D, Al Mamoori DA, Tayyar Y. The Role of Curcumin Administration in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder: Mini Meta-Analysis of Clinical Trials. Phytother Res. 2016 Feb;30(2):175-83.
Saffron is an ancient remedy, and was first used as a medicine in the Ancient Greek city of Thera.
Ferrence SC, Bendersky G. Therapy with saffron and the goddess at Thera. Perspect Biol Med. 2004;47 (2):199–226
Turmeric may help alleviate depression.
Sanmukhani J, Satodia V, Trivedi J, Patel T, Tiwari D, Panchal B, Goel A, Tripathi CB. Efficacy and safety of curcumin in major depressive disorder: a randomized controlled trial. Phytother Res. 2014 Apr;28 (4):579-85.
A study found that elderly Taiwanese people had a lower incidence of depression when they ate a diet high in vegetables.
Tsai AC, Chang T-L, Chi S-H. Frequent consumption of vegetables predicts lower risk of depression in older Taiwanese – results of a prospective population-based study. Public Health Nutr. 2012;15 (6):1087-92.
Fruit and vegetables high in phytonutrients, such as apples, berries, grapes and onions, may help to regulate an enzyme called MAO, which can break down both serotonin and dopamine.
Beydoun MA, Beydoun HA, Boueiz A, Shroff MR, Zonderman AB. Antioxidant status and its association with elevated depressive symptoms among US adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2005–2006. Br J Nutr. 2013;109 (9):1714-29.
Scientists have recently found that saffron may have a similar effect to Prozac in the treatment of depression.
Noorbala AA, Akhondzadeh S, Tahmacebi-Pour N, Jamshidi AH. Hydro-alcoholic extract of Crocus sativus L. versus fluoxetine in the treatment of mild to moderate depression: a double-blind, randomized pilot trail. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005; 97 (2):281-4.
However, larger-scale trials will be needed before this can be confirmed.
Hausenblas HA, Saha D, Dubyak PJ, Anton SD. Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) and major depressive disorder: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. J Integr Med. 2013 Nov;11(6):377-83.
The scent of saffron can be soothing and reduce the symptoms of anxiety.
Fukui H, Toyoshima K, Komaki R. Psychological and neuroendocrinological effects of odor of saffron (Crocus Sativus). Phytomedicine. 2011;18(8-9):726 – 30.
Omega-3 fatty acids have anti-inflammatory properties.
Simopoulos AP. Omega-3 fatty acids in inflammation and autoimmune diseases. J Am Coll Nutr. 2002; 21(6):495-505.
Omega-3s can also help to alleviate both diagnosed and undiagnosed depression.
Grosso G, Pajak A, Marventano S, Castellano S, Galvano F, Bucolo C, Drago F, Caraci F. Role of omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of depressive disorders: a comprehensive meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. PLoS One. 2014; 9(5):e96905.
Studies have shown a link between intake of trans fats and the risk of depression.
Almudena Sánchez-Villegas, et al. Dietary Fat Intake and the Risk of Depression: The SUN Project. PLoS One. 2011; 6(1): e16268.
Grass-fed meat is thought to contain more nutrients and more balanced and healthier fat.
Daley CA, Abbott A, Doyle PS, Nader GA, Larson S. A review of fatty acid profiles and antioxidant content in grass-fed and grain-fed beef. Nutr J. 2010 March; 9:1.
A Finnish study found that higher consumption of fish correlates with a lower incidence of depression.
Tanskanen A et al. Fish consumption and depression symptoms in the general population in Finland. Psychiatry Serv. 2001;52;529-531.
Fish consumption is associated with better self-reported mental and physical health.
Silvers KM, Scott KM. Fish consumption and self-reported physical and mental health status. Public Health Nutr. 2002;5:427–431.
According to the World Health Organization, mercury may have a negative effect on the nervous, digestive and immune systems, as well as the lungs, kidneys, skin and eyes.
Aspartame may have a negative effect on mood.
Lindseth GN, Coolahan SE, Petros TV Lindseth PD. Neurobehavioural effects of aspartame consumption. Res Nurs Health. 2014;37 (3):185–193.
Artificial sweeteners alter our intestinal bacteria.
Jotham Sues, Tal Korem, David Zeevi, et al. Artificial sweeteners induce glucose intolerance by altering gut microbiota. Nature. 2014.
Diabetes could be linked to depression.
Roy T, Lloyd CE. Epidemiology of depression and diabetes: a systematic review. J Affect Disord. 2012 Oct; 142 Suppl:S8-21.
SV Bădescu, et al. The association between Diabetes mellitus and Depression. J Med Life. 2016, 9(2): 120–125.
C Kan, et al. Genetic overlap between type 2 diabetes and depression in Swedish and Danish twin registries. Molecular Psychiatry. 2016 21, 903–909.
Eating breakfast may stabilise mood and improve concentration in children.
Taki Y, Hashizume H, Sassa Y, Takeuchi H, Asano M, Asano K, Kawashima R. Breakfast Staple Types Affect Brain Grey Matter Volume and Cognitive Function in Healthy Children. PLoS ONE. 2010 5(12): e15213.
A Low GI breakfast leads to better cognitive processing in children later in the morning.
Benton D, et al. The delivery rate of dietary carbohydrates affects cognitive performance in both rats and humans. Psychopharmacology. 2003 166, (1) 86-90.
Diabetes could be linked to depression.
Diabetes is a significant national problem.
Nutrition Note: cinnamon for blood sugar balance
Evidence suggests that cinnamon may be beneficial in preventing diabetes, and could improve brain power and concentration.
Sartorius T, et al. Cinnamon extract improves insulin sensitivity in the brain and lowers liver fat in mouse models of obesity. PLos One. 2014 9(3):e92358.
Couturier K, Hininger I, Poulet L, Anderson RA, Roussel AM, Canini F, Batandier C. Cinnamon intake alleviates the combined effects of dietary-induced insulin resistance and acute stress on brain mitochondria. J Nutr Biochem. 2016 Feb 28:183-90.
Medagama AB. The glycaemic outcomes of Cinnamon, a review of the experimental evidence and clinical trials. Nutrition Journal. 2015 14:108.
Robert G Fassett and Jeff S Coombes. Astaxanthin, oxidative stress, inflammation and cardiovascular disease. Future Cardiology. 2009 Jul;5(4): 333-342.
Hyperforin, found in St John’s Wort, can boost serotonin levels.
Camilleri M. Serotonin in the Gastrointestinal Tract. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2009 Feb; 16(1): 53–59.
Low levels of tryptophan may play a role in depression.
Biskup CS, Sánchez CL, Arrant A, Van Swearingen AED, Kuhn C, Zepf FD. Effects of Acute Tryptophan Depletion on Brain Serotonin Function and Concentrations of Dopamine and Norepinephrine in C57BL/6J and BALB/cJ Mice. PLoS ONE. 2012 7(5): e35916.
Healthy gut flora seems to affect serotonin synthesis.
O’Mahony SM, Clarke G, Borre YE, Dinan TG, Cryan JF. Serotonin, tryptophan metabolism and the brain-gut- microbiome axis. Behav Brain Res. 2015 Jan 15;277:32-48.
There is some limited evidence that eating carbohydrates may help facilitate the transport of trytophan into the brain.
Wurtman JJ, Wurtman RJ, et al. Effects of normal meals rich in carbohydrates on proteins on plasma tryptophan and tyrosine ratios. Am J clin Nutr. 2003: 169 (20):1873 -80.
Eating butternut squash may reduce experience of social anxiety disorder.
Hudson C, Hudson S, MacKenzie J. Protein-source tryptophan as an efficacious treatment for social anxiety disorder: a pilot study. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2007; 85 (9):928 -932.
There may be a link between reduced serotonin levels and low intakes of vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acid. This could lead to an increased risk of neuropsychiatric disorders and depression.
Patrick RP, Ames BN. Vitamin D and the omega-3 fatty acids control serotonin synthesis and action, part 2: relevance for ADHD, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and impulsive behavior. FASEB J. 2015 Jun;29(6):2207-22.
Nutrition Note: zinc
A study has shown that consumption of zinc alongside SSRIs improves recovery from depression.
Ranjbar E, et al. Effects of zinc supplementation in patients with major depression: a randomised clinical trial. J Psychiatry. 2013, 8(2): 73 – 79.
Studies suggest that supplements are almost always a waste of money.
Eliseo Guallar, et al. Enough Is Enough: Stop Wasting Money on Vitamin and Mineral Supplements. Ann Intern Med. 2013 December 17,159(12):850-851.
Zinc is thought to help brain cells communicate through neural pathways, a process known as ‘neuronal plasticity’.
Prakash A, Bharti K, Majeed AB. Zinc: indications in brain disorders. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2015 Apr;29(2):131-49.
Zinc deficiency could be linked to depression and reduced focus.
Nowak G. Szewczyk B, Pilc A. Zinc and depression an update. Pharmacologica reports. 2005. 57: 713-718.
Nutrition Note: magic mushrooms
The psychedelic compound found in magic mushrooms could one day be used to treat patients with severe depression who do not respond to other therapies.
One study on mice found that eating button mushrooms had an effect on gut-microbial diversity.
Varshney J, et al. White button mushrooms increase microbial diversity and accelerate the resolution of Citrobacter rodentium infection in mice. J Nutr. 2013 Apr; 143(4): 526–32.
Bad bacteria can compromise the lining of the intestine, leading to increased intestinal permeability, or ‘leaky gut’.
Kelly JR, et al. Breaking down the barriers: the gut microbiome, intestinal permeability and stress-related psychiatric disorders. Front Cell Neurosci. 2015; 9: 392.
Cytokines which find their way into the brain may interfere with its chemical messaging or neurotransmission, and the balance of serotonin and dopamine.
Miller AH, Haroon E, Raison CL, Felger JC. Cytokine targets in the brain: impact on neurotransmitters and neurocircuits. Depress Anxiety. 2013 Apr;30(4):297-306.
Dowlati Y, et al. A meta-analysis of cytokines in major depression. Biol Psychiatry. 2010 Mar;67(5):446-57.
Studies have revealed close links between stress and the microbes living in our
G. De Palma, et al. Microbiota and host determinants of behavioural phenotype in maternally separated mice. Nature Communications. 2015 Jul 28;6:7735.
Many scientists now think that stress influences our gut bacteria, which can have an impact on our mental health.
Forsythe SLP, Bienenstock J. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder: Does the Gut Microbiome Hold the Key? Can J Psychiatry. 2016 April;61: 204-213.
Maloney RD, et al. The microbiome: stress, health and disease. Mammalian Genome. 2014 Feb;25(1):49-74.
A probiotic called Bimuno galactooligosaccharides has been shown to reduce levels of cortisol and increase subjects’ attention to positive information.
K. Schmidt, et al. Prebiotic intake reduces the waking cortisol response and alters emotional bias in health volunteers. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2015 May;232(10):1793-801.
Women given yoghurt containing probiotics were found to have a calmer response to certain stimuli.
Mayer EA, et al. Consumption of fermented milk product with probiotic modulates brain activity. Gastroenterology. 2013 June;144(7):1394-401, 1401.e1-4.
Exercise stimulates microbes in the gut to produce more butyrate, which boosts the immune system.
Matsumoto, M, Inoue R, Tsukahara T, Ushida K, Chiji H, Matsubara N, Hara H. Voluntary running exercise alters microbiota composition and increases n-butyrate concentration in rat cecum. Biosci, Biotechnol Biochem. 2008;72: 572-6.
Cook MD, et al. Exercise and gut immune function: evidence of alterations in colon immune cell homeostasis and microbiome characteristics with exercise training. Immunol Cell Biol. 2016 Feb;94(2):158-63.
Intermittent short-term fasting may help our gut microbes.
Zarrinpar, A, Chaix A, Yooseph S, Panda S. Diet and feeding pattern affect the diurnal dynamics of the gut microbiome. Cell Metab. 2014 Dec 2; 20(6):1006 –17.
A transplant of a healthy person’s faecal matter can help those with damaged intestines.
Woo Jung Lee, et al. Fecal Microbiota Transplantation: A Review of Emerging Indications Beyond Relapsing Clostridium difficile Toxin Colitis. Gastroenterology & Hepatology. 2015 Jan (11):1.
Magnesium deficiency may contribute to irritability, nervousness and depression.
G.A. Eby and K. L. Eby. Rapid recovery from major depression using magnesium treatment. Medical Hypothesis. 67(2) (2006), pp.362-70.
Vitamin B6 may have a positive impact on depression and anxiety.
Williams A, et al. The role for vitamin B-6 as treatment for depression: a systematic review. Family Practice. 2005, 22(5): 532-537.
Y. Mikawaa, , S. Mizobuchi , M. Egi and K Moritab. Low Serum Concentrations of Vitamin B6 and Iron Are Related to Panic Attack and Hyperventilation Attack. Acta Med. 2013 Vol. 67, No. 2, pp. 99-104.
Snacking on foods that have a high proportion of tryptophan, such as butternut squash seeds, can increase seratonin and decrease social anxiety.
Hudson C, Hudson S, MacKenszie J. Protein-soucre tryptophan as an efficacious treatment for social anxiety disorder: a pilot study. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2007; 85(9):928 -32.
Theanine, found in green tea, is thought to have calming properties, and to improve cognition, attention and memory.
Vignes M, Maurice T, Lanté F, Nedjar M, Thethi K, Guiramand J, Récasens M. Anxiolytic properties of green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). Brain Res. 2006 Sep 19;1110(1):102-15.
AC Nobre, A Rao, GN Owen, L-theanine, a natural constituent in tea, and its effect on mental state. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2008;17 (S1):167-168.
Park SK, et al, A Combination of Green Tea Extract and l-Theanine Improves Memory and Attention in Subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study. Journal of Medicinal Food. 2011 Mar;14(4): 334-343.
When we are under stress, signals are sent to the amygdala, the part of the brain that
is responsible for triggering feelings of fear and anxiety.
Philip Tovote, Jonathan Paul Fadok, Andreas Lüthi. Neuronal circuits for fear and anxiety. Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 2015 16, 317–331.
Hippocampal shrinking is a process that has been seen to occur in depression.
Sapolsky RM. Depression, antidepressants, and the shrinking hippocampus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Oct 23; 98(22): 12320–12322.
Sheline YI, Wang PW, Gado MH, Csernansky JG, Vannier MW. Hippocampal atrophy in recurrent major depression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 Apr 30;93(9):3908-13.
Choline plays a role in a number of bodily functions, including maintaining cell structure.
Zeisel SH, Kerry-Ann da Costa KA. Choline: An Essential Nutrient for Public Health. Nutr Rev. 2009 Nov; 67(11): 615–623.
Wozniak JR, et al, Choline supplementation in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Nov;102(5):1113-25.
Lippelt DP, van der Kint S, van Herk K, Naber M. No Acute Effects of Choline Bitartrate Food Supplements on Memory in Healthy, Young, Human Adults. PLoS One. 2016 Jun 24;11(6):e0157714.
Knott V, et al. Neurocognitive effects of acute choline supplementation in low, medium and high performer healthy volunteers. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2015 Apr;131:119-29.
Rosemary is traditionally thought to boost memory. Ancient Greek scholars wore wreaths of it during exams.
There is some evidence that sage can improve memory.
Berries, particularly blueberries, can have mental as well as physical benefits.
Krikorian R, et al. Blueberry Fruit Supplementation in Human Cognitive Aging. Meeting of the American Chemical Society; 2016 March 13-17; San Diego, CA.
Joseph JA, et al Grape juice, berries, and walnuts affect brain aging and behavior. J Nutr. 2009 Sep;139(9):1813S-7S.
Devore EE, Kang JH, Breteler MM, Grodstein F. Dietary intakes of berries and flavonoids in relation to cognitive decline. Ann Neurol. 2012 Jul;72(1):135-43.
Consumption of seafood in elderly participants is associated with a smaller decline in memory and other cognitive functions. This may be due to the presence of omega-3.
O. van de Rest, Y. Wang, L. L. Barnes, C. Tangney, D. A. Bennett, M. C. Morris. APOE 4 and the associations of seafood and long-chain omega-3 fatty acids with cognitive decline. Neurology. 2016.
Some pink and orange seafood contain astaxanthin, an antioxidant that, when taken at supplementary levels, may help to improve cognitive function.
Katagiri M1, Satoh A, Tsuji S, Shirasawa T, Effects of astaxanthin-rich Haematococcus pluvialis extract on cognitive function: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2012 Sep;51(2):102-7.
There have been a number of studies recently looking into how cardiovascular
exercise might improve memory.
Roig M, Nordbrandt S, Geertsen SS, Nielsen JB. The effects of cardiovascular exercise on human memory: a review with meta-analysis. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2013 Sep;37(8):1645-66.
Exercising four hours after a memory task may improve retention.
Van Dongen EV, Kersten IH, Wagner IC, Morris RG, Fernández G. Physical Exercise Performed Four Hours after Learning Improves Memory Retention and Increases Hippocampal Pattern Similarity during Retrieval. Curr Biol. 2016 Jun 15.
Exercising enough to get the blood pumping might help memory.
Van Praag, et al. Running-Induced Systemic Cathepsin B Secretion Is Associated with Memory Function. Cell Metab. 2016 Aug 9;24(2):332-40.
Exercise is also beneficial in the treatment of depressive symptoms.
Josefsson T, Lindwall M, Archer T. Physical exercise intervention in depressive disorders: meta-analysis and systematic review. J Med Sci Sports. 2014 Apr;24(2):259-72.
Menopause causes a decrease in oestrogen, which can affect mood.
B12 improves liver function, and deficiencies are associated with depression.
Coppen A, Bolander-Gouaille C. Treatment of depression: time to consider folic acid and vitamin B12. J Psychopharmacol. 2005 Jan;19(1):59-65.
Selenium supports the thyroid and plays an important role in the immune system. It may also improve mood and mental function.
Hawkes WC, Hornbostel L. Effects of dietary selenium on mood in healthy men living in a metabolic research unit. Biol Psychiatry. 1996;39(2):121–8.
Z Banikazemi, et al. Selenium Intake is Related to Beck’s Depression Score. Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2016 Mar; 18(3).
Stress can disrupt our hormone levels, which can cause illness and even affect our reproductive function.
Ranabir S, Reetu K. Stress and hormones. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Jan-Mar; 15(1): 18–22.
Foods containing tryptophan can help you to sleep, as it is involved in synthesising melatonin.
K Peuhkuri, N Sihvola, R Korpela. Diet promotes sleep duration and quality. Nutrition Research. 2012;32:(5) 309–319.
Camomile has been used traditionally for medical purposes.
Srivastava JK, Shankar E, Gupta S. Chamomile: A herbal medicine of the past with a bright future. Mol Med Report. 2010 Nov 1; 3(6): 895–901.
David Hoffman. Medical Herbalism: The Science and Practices of Herbal Medicine. Vermont: Healing Arts Press;2003.
Lemon balm may improve cognitive function and mood.
Kennedy DO, et al. Modulation of mood and cognitive performance following acute administration of single doses of Melissa officinalis (Lemon balm) with human CNS nicotinic and muscarinic receptor-binding properties. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2003 Oct;28(10):1871-81.
In conjunction with valerian, lemon balm can improve children’s sleep.
Müller SF, Klement S. A combination of valerian and lemon balm is effective in the treatment of restlessness and dyssomnia in children. Phytomedicine. 2006 Jun;13(6):383-7.
Lavender has been shown to reduce tension and anxiety, especially after childbirth.
Kritsidima M, Newton T, Asimakopoulou K. The effects of lavender scent on dental patient anxiety levels: a cluster randomised-controlled trial. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2010 Feb;38(1):83-7.
Kianpour M, Mansouri A, Mehrabi , Asghari G. Effect of lavender scent inhalation on prevention of stress, anxiety and depression in the postpartum period. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. 2016 Mar-Apr;21(2):197-201.
Excessive consumption of sugar can lead to addiction.
Rada P, Avena NM, Hoebel BG. Daily bingeing on sugar repeatedly releases dopamine in the accumbens shell. Neuroscience. 2005; 134(3):737-44.
Nicole M. Avena, Pedro Rada, Bartley G. Hoebel. Evidence for sugar addiction: Behavioral and neurochemical effects of intermittent, excessive sugar intake. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2008; 32(1): 20–39.
Colantuoni C, et al. Excessive sugar intake alters binding to dopamine and mu-opioid receptors in the brain. Neuroreport. 2001 Nov 16;12(16):3549-52.
Chromium can help alleviate carbohydrate cravings in those with atypical depression.
Docherty JP, Sack DA, Roffman M, Finch M, Komorowski JR. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, exploratory trial of chromium picolinate in atypical depression: effect on carbohydrate craving. J Psychiatr Pract. 2005; 11(5):302-14.
The beta-carotene in sweet potatoes may help to boost mood.
May A. Beydoun, Hind A. Beydoun, Adel Boueiz, Monal R. Shroff, Alan B. Zonderman, Antioxidant status and its association with elevated depressive symptoms among US adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2005–6. British Journal of Nutrition. 2011 109:9 1714-1729.
There are important differences between food allergy and food intolerance.
Gluten allergy, intolerance and sensitivity are distinct problems.
Sapone A, et al. Spectrum of gluten-related disorders: consensus on new nomenclature and classification. BMC Medicine. 2012, 10:13.
It is possible that gluten consumption in those with non-coeliac gluten sensitivity can have an effect on depressive symptoms.
S. L. Peters, G. W. Yelland, J. G. Muir, P. R. Gibson. Randomised clinical trial: gluten may cause depression in subjects with non-coeliac gluten sensitivity – an exploratory clinical study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2014, May, 39(10): 1104–1112.
The low incidence of heart disease deaths in France may be a result of their culture of mindful eating.
Law, M. Why heart disease mortality is low in France: the time lag explanation. BMJ. 1999; 318: 1471-80.
Recent research into the nutritional value of organic food has been controversial. Many organic foods seem to offer no additional nutritional benefits.